Appendix E: Menota header

Version 3.0 (final publication expected in December 2019)

by Odd Einar Haugen and Beeke Stegmann

E.1 Introduction

We recommend that all texts in the Medieval Nordic Text Archive contain a minimal amount of information about the text, its background and its encoding. This should be entered in the <teiHeader>, which is an integral and essential part of any XML/TEI document. While not required, a longer header with more detailed information on the manuscript source is highly welcomed.

Below are three examples of headers for Medieval Nordic texts. The first two examples are so-called minimal headers with basic recommended information, the first being a header for a primary source with only a single text; the other for a source with more than one text. The third example is a longer header with more codicological detail. It should be noted, however, that a minimal header of a multi-text file can also become rather long when specifying the individual texts that are contained in the manuscript.

Cf. the TEI P5 Guidelines, ch. 2 for a discussion of headers in general, specifically ch. 2.6 for the notion of minimal and recommended headers.

As of v. 3.0 of The Menota Handbook we recommend that you use a RELAX NG schema when encoding a text rather than a DTD (Document Type Declaration). These schemas are explained in app. D.2.

The schema being used in a file is declared at the very beginning of the file. The headers that can be downloaded in app. E.5 below are all using the RELAX NG schema, and can thus be used as models.

E.2 Minimal header for a source with a single text

Although many medieval manuscripts contain more than one text, there are some manuscripts which only contain a single piece of text. That is also generally true of charters (diplomas). We have chosen Holm perg 6 fol (also referred to as Sth. perg. fol. nr 6) as an example of a single-text source. This manuscript carries the text of Barlaams ok Josaphats saga, although with some parts missing.

Please note that the distinction between single-text and multi-text sources is not straightforward and ultimately rests on the definition of key concepts such as “text” and “work”. If in doubt, we recommend using the established categories in catalogues and indices, e.g. the index volume of Ordbog over det norrøne prosasprog (Copenhagen 1989).

We have chosen Holm perg 6 fol also in order to demonstrate how a cumulative process of text encoding can be documented in the header. This text was initially transcribed and edited in an electronic version by Magnus Rindal in the late 1970ies (the printed edition in 1981 was generated from this file). Subsequently, Jon Erik Hagen and Odd Einar Haugen lemmatised the text, i.e. added information about lemma and grammatical form for each running word. Finally, Christian-Emil Ore converted the file from its original customised format into Menotic XML. Thus, four people have contributed to the making of the present electronic version of the text, and should be credited accordingly.


<TEI xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/1.0" xmlns:me="http://www.menota.org/ns/1.0">
  <teiHeader xml:lang="eng">
    <fileDesc>
      <titleStmt>
        <title>Barlaams ok Josaphats saga : Holm perg 6 fol : A digital edition</title>
          <editor>  
            <name type="person">Magnus Rindal</name>
            <orgName type="affiliation">University of Bergen</orgName>
          </editor>
          <respStmt>
            <resp>Transcription</resp>
            <name>  
              <name type="person">Magnus Rindal</name>
              <orgName type="affiliation">University of Bergen</orgName>
            </name>
          </respStmt>
          <respStmt>
            <resp>Lemmatisation and morphological encoding</resp>
            <name>  
              <name type="person">Jon Erik Hagen</name>
              <orgName type="affiliation">University of Bergen</orgName>
            </name>
          </respStmt>
          <respStmt>
            <resp>Lemmatisation and morphological encoding</resp>
            <name>  
              <name type="person">Odd Einar Haugen</name>
              <orgName type="affiliation">University of Bergen</orgName>
            </name>
          </respStmt>
          <respStmt>
            <resp>Conversion to Menotic XML</resp>
            <name>  
              <name type="person">Christian Emil Ore</name>
              <orgName type="affiliation">University of Oslo</orgName>
            </name>
          </respStmt>
      </titleStmt>
      <editionStmt>
        <edition n="1.0.1">Version 1.0.1, <date when="2016-11-22">22 November 2016</date>
        </edition>
      </editionStmt>
      <extent n="76411">76411 words</extent>
      <publicationStmt>
        <distributor>Medieval Nordic Text Archive</distributor>
        <idno type="Menota">Ms. 1</idno>
        <date when="2004-03-01">1 March 2004</date>
        <availability status="free">
      <availability status="free">
        <licence target="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/">
          CC-BY-SA 4.0</licence>
          <p>License accepted by Magnus Rindal in a mail to Odd Einar 
          Haugen 3 November 2015.</p>
      </availability>
      </publicationStmt>
      <sourceDesc>
        <msDesc>
          <msIdentifier>
            <country  key="SE">Sweden</country>
            <settlement>Stockholm</settlement>
            <repository>Kungliga Biblioteket</repository>
            <idno>Holm perg 6 fol</idno>
            <msName>Barlaams ok Josaphats saga</msName>
          </msIdentifier>
          <msContents>
            <msItem n="1">
              <locus from="1r" to="102v">ff. 1r–102v (pp. 1–204)</locus>
              <title type="main">Barlaams ok Josaphats saga</title>
              <title type="abbreviated">Barl</title>
              <textLang mainLang="onw">Old Norwegian</textLang>
            </msItem>
          </msContents>
          <physDesc>
            <objectDesc form="codex">
              <supportDesc>
                <support>
                  <p><material>Parchment</material>, but with 
                    five younger <material>paper</material> leaves 
                    added; two at the front (the last being blank) and 
                    three at the back.</p>
                </support>
                <extent>102 parchment leaves and 5 paper leaves; 
                  210 mm (height) by 155 mm (width).</extent>
                <foliation>
                  <p>The manuscript is paginated on the recto pages 
                    of the parchment leaves, 1–204.</p>
                </foliation>
              </supportDesc>
            </objectDesc>
          </physDesc>
          <history>
            <origin>
              <p>Written in <origPlace>Eastern Norway</origPlace> 
                <origDate notBefore="1250" notAfter="1300">c. 1275</origDate>.
              </p>
            </origin>
          </history>
        </msDesc>
      </sourceDesc>
    </fileDesc>
    <encodingDesc>
      <projectDesc>
        <p>This manuscript text has been encoded according to the standard 
        set out in <title>The Menota Handbook</title> (version 3.0), at 
        <ref target="http://www.menota.org/handbook">
        http://www.menota.org/handbook</ref> as of <date>2019-05-10</date>.</p>
        <p>The encoded text has numbered page beginnings and line beginnings according
         to the manuscript.</p>
      </projectDesc>
      <editorialDecl>
        <correction status="high">
          <p>This text was proofread by <persName>Magnus Rindal</persName>  
          and colleagues before the publication of the printed version in 1981. It is 
          unlikely that it contains any significant number of errors. However, it
          can not be ruled out that the subsequent conversion of the file may have
          introduced some systemic errors.</p>
        </correction>
        <normalization me:level="dipl">
          <p>This text has been encoded on a diplomatic level, according to the practice  
          by Norsk Historisk kjeldeskrift-Institutt.</p>
        </normalization>
        <interpretation me:lemmatized="completely" me:morphAnalyzed="completely">
          <p>The complete text has been lemmatised and morphologically analysed  
           according to the rules specified in ch. 11 of the Menota Handbook, v. 3.0.</p>
        </interpretation>     
      </editorialDecl>
    </encodingDesc>
    <profileDesc>
      <langUsage>
        <language ident="onw">Old Norwegian</language>
      </langUsage>
      <handNotes>
        <handNote xml:id="h1"/>
        <handNote xml:id="h2"/>
      </handNotes>
    </profileDesc>
    <revisionDesc>
      <change>
        <date>2019-05-12</date>
        <name>Odd Einar Haugen</name>, 
        <orgName type="affiliation">University of Bergen</orgName>: 
        Made some minor changes to the header so that it could be
        published as an example header in v. 3.0 of the handbook.
      </change>
      <change>
        <date>1980</date>
        <name>Magnus Rindal</name>
        <orgName type="affiliation">University of Bergen</orgName>: 
        Finalised the electronic text and prepared it for publication 
        in book form (published by Norsk Historisk 
        Kjeldeskrift-Institutt in 1981).
      </change>
    </revisionDesc>
  </teiHeader>

The <body> follows immediately after the header. This is where the actual transcription is located. Note that the <div> element is used to organise the various sections of the manuscript, in this case the individual chapters.


<text xml:lang="onw">
  <body>
    <div>
      <p>The text of the first chapter goes here.</p>
    </div>
    <div>
      <p><handShift new="h2"/>The text of the second chapter goes here.</p>
    </div>
    <div>
      <p>The text of the third chapter goes here.</p>
    </div>
  </body>

The source text is placed within the <text> element. The attribute @xml:lang specifies the language of the text (cf. <profileDesc> above). If the text contains sporadic words or sentences in another language, e.g. Latin, the attribute @xml:lang can be used to specify these exception from the rule, whether on the level of the word, <w>, paragraph, <p> or chapter, <div>.

This is also an example of how change of scribal hands in the source can be recorded. Note that rather than putting each hand in an element of its own (which would cause problems of overlapping) the actual change is recorded using a milestone element, <handShift/>. Note that the number of hands must be recorded in the <profileDesc> element of the header.

E.3 Minimal header for a source with multiple texts

AM 242 fol – often referred to as Codex Wormianus or Órmsbók – is a good example of a multi-text source. It contains the prose version of Edda (by Snorri Sturlusonar), the four grammatical treatises, and a few other poetic texts (Maríukvæði, Rígsþula and ókennd heiti). Edda Snorra Sturlusonar is usually divided into four sections; the Prologue, Gylfaginning, Skaldskaparmál and Háttatal.

The header of a multi-text source should specify the various parts of the source within the <msContents> element. Here, each part is described as an item, <msItem>, and in the text, <div> elements identify the corresponding parts of the source.

Sometimes, there are complications with respect to the sequence of the manuscript items. In the present manuscript, Háttatal is not placed in conjunction with the other sections of Edda Snorra Strulusonar, but towards the end of the manuscript, and Maríukvæði has been divided into two parts with a few other texts intervening.

The body follows immediately after the header. This is where the actual transcription is located. Note that <div> elements are used to organise the various parts of the manuscript, referring to the divisons set out in the <msContents> element of the header.


<text xml:lang="oic">
  <body>
    <div n="1.1">
      <head>
        <supplied>Prologus</supplied>
      </head>
      <p>The text of part 1.1 goes here.</p>
    </div>
    <div n="1.2">
      <head>
        <supplied>Gylfaginning</supplied>
      </head>
      <p>The text of part 1.2 goes here.</p>
    </div>
    <div n="1.3">
      <head>
        <supplied>Skáldskaparmál</supplied>
      </head>
      <p>The text of part 1.3 goes here.</p>
    </div>
    <div n="2.1">
      <head>
        <supplied>Prologus</supplied>
      </head>
      <p>The text of part 2.1 goes here.</p>
    </div>
    <div n="2.2">
      <head>
        <supplied>The first grammatical treatise</supplied>
      </head>
      <p>The text of part 2.2 goes here.</p>
    </div>
    <div n="2.3">
      <head>
        <supplied>The second grammatical treatise</supplied>
      </head>
      <p>The text of part 2.3 goes here.</p>
    </div>
    <div n="2.4">
      <head>
        <supplied>The third grammatical treatise</supplied>
      </head>
      <p>The text of part 2.4 goes here.</p>
    </div>
    <div n="2.5">
      <head>
        <supplied>The fourth grammatical treatise</supplied>
      </head>
      <p>The text of part 2.5 goes here.</p>
    </div>
    <div n="3">
      <head>
        <supplied>Maríukvæði (1)</supplied>
      </head>
      <p>The text of part 3 goes here.</p>
    </div>
    <div n="4">
      <head>
        <supplied>Háttatal</supplied>
      </head>
      <p>The text of part 4, Háttatal, goes here. Note that Háttatal is regarded as part of Edda  
      Snorra Sturlusonar, but since it has been inserted here by the scribe/redactor of the 
      manuscript it has been numbered as No. 4 according to its position in the manuscript.</p>
    </div>
    <div n="5">
      <head>
        <supplied>Rígsþula</supplied>
      </head>
      <p>The text of part 5 goes here.</p>
    </div>
    <div n="6">
      <head>
        <supplied>Ókennd heiti</supplied>
      </head>
      <p>The text of part 6 goes here.</p>
    </div>
    <div n="7">
      <head>
        <supplied>Maríukvæði (2)</supplied>
      </head>
      <p>The text of part 7 goes here. This is in fact the second part of Maríukvæði, but
      it has been numbered according to its position in the manuscript; cf. part 4 above.</p>
    </div>
  </body>
</text>

The source text is placed within the <text> element. The attribute @xml:lang specifies the language of the text (cp. <msContents> above). If the text contains sporadic words or sentences in another language, e.g. Latin, the attribute @xml:lang can be used to specify these exception from the rule, whether on the level of the word, <w>, paragraph, <p> or chapter, <div>.

The divisions of the text correspond to the list of <msItem> elements in <msContents> above, using the same numbers (1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 2.1, 2.2, etc.)

The <head> element specifies the title of the work (or a part of it). If the title is not stated in the source, the attribute type with the value supplied should be used. If the title is stated as a rubric in the manuscript, the type attribute should still be used, but with the value rubric.

E.4 Detailed header with more codicological information

As the third example we have chosen Copenhagen, Royal Library, NKS 235 g 4to which is a fragment of a single leaf. It carries a part of Konungs skuggssjá.

This header demonstrates how to provide more codicological information about a source manuscript and shows the usage of the recommended mark-up. Originally, the file was produced for the Menota archive by Nina Stensaker with a minimal header. For the purpose of demonstrating a more detailed header, it has later been expanded.


<TEI xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/1.0" xmlns:me="http://www.menota.org/ns/1.0">
<teiHeader xml:lang="eng">
  <fileDesc>
    <titleStmt>
      <title>A fragment of Konungs skuggsjá : NKS 235 g 4to : A digital 
        edition</title>
    <editor>
      <name type="person">Nina Stensaker</name>
      <orgName type="affiliation">University of Bergen</orgName>
    </editor>
    <respStmt>
      <resp>Transcription</resp>
      <name type="person">Nina Stensaker</name>
      <orgName type="affiliation">University of Bergen</orgName>
    </respStmt> 
    <respStmt>
      <resp>Conversion of transcription to XML</resp>
      <name type="person">Robert K. Paulsen</name>
      <orgName type="affiliation">University of Bergen</orgName>
    </respStmt>
    <respStmt>
      <resp>Project overview</resp>
      <name type="person">Odd Einar Haugen</name>
      <orgName type="affiliation">University of Bergen</orgName>
    </respStmt>
  </titleStmt>		            
    <editionStmt>
      <edition n="1.1">Version 1.1 <date when="2018-02-01">1 February 
      2018</date>.</edition>
    </editionStmt>
    <extent n="824">824 words</extent>	            
    <publicationStmt>
      <distributor>Medieval Nordic Text Archive</distributor>
      <idno type="Menota">Ms. 38</idno>
      <date when="2016-07-19">19 July 2016</date>
      <availability status="free">
        <licence target="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/">
          CC-BY-SA 4.0</licence>
        <p>Licence accepted by the editor Nina Stensaker in a meeting with 
          Odd Einar Haugen, 12 May 2016.</p>
      </availability>
    </publicationStmt>
    <notesStmt>
      <note>Produced as part of my master’s thesis on Konungs skuggsjá 
        at <orgName type="affiliation">University of Bergen</orgName>.
      </note>
    </notesStmt>
    <sourceDesc>
      <bibl facs="yes">Photographic facsimiles of the whole fragment from 
        the Royal Library (Kongelige Bibliotek) in Copenhagen.</bibl>
      <msDesc>
        <msIdentifier>
          <country key="DK">Denmark</country>
          <settlement>Copenhagen</settlement>
          <repository>Det Kongelige Bibliotek</repository>
          <idno>NKS 235 g 4to</idno>
          <msName>A fragment of Konungs skuggsjá</msName>
        </msIdentifier>
        <msContents>
          <msItem n="1">
            <locus from="1r" to="1v">1r–1v</locus>
            <title type="main">Konungs skuggsjá</title>
            <title type="abbreviated">Kgs</title>
            <incipit defective="true">ſꝩa heımſkır ꝼrenꝺꝛ þeır er epꞇír 
              lıꝩa.</incipit>
            <explicit defective="true">þo aꞇ hann ſe mıok ꝩıꞇr ſıalꝼr eꝼ þaꞇ 
              haꝼðe</explicit>
            <textLang mainLang="onw">Old Norwegian</textLang>
            <note>Fragment. See the edition by Ludvig Holm-Olsen (1983), 
              p. 140, for textual correspondence with the main manuscript, 
              AM 243 b alfa fol.</note>
          </msItem>
        </msContents>
        <physDesc>
          <objectDesc form="fragment">
            <supportDesc>
              <support>
                <p><material>Parchment</material>.</p>
              </support>
              <extent>1 leaf; ca 282 mm (height) by 216
                mm (width).</extent>
              <foliation>
                <p>The fragment is not foliated or paginated.</p>
              </foliation>
              <collation>One singleton.</collation>
              <condition><p>The leaf is very worn and has many stains.</p>
                <p>It had been reused in a book binding, which caused 
                  discoloration and wear that is worse on f. 
                  <locus from="1v" to="1v">1v</locus>.</p>
                <p>Some of the words are difficult to read due to the  
                  condition of the fragment.</p>
              </condition>
            </supportDesc>
            <layoutDesc>
              <layout columns="2" writtenLines="27">
                <p>The text is written in two columns with 27 lines each.</p>
                <p>There are approximately 8 to 10 words per line.</p>
              </layout>
            </layoutDesc>
          </objectDesc>		                  
          <handDesc hands="1">
            <handNote scope="sole" script="Textualis">The fragment was 
              written by a single unidentified scribe.</handNote>
          </handDesc>		                  
          <decoDesc>
            <decoNote type="initial">
              <p>Fol. <locus from="1vb" to="1vb">1vb:7-1vb:12</locus>: 
                Major pen flourished  initial Þ. Main colour: bright red; pen 
                flourish in light blue and bright red.</p>
            </decoNote>
            <decoNote type="littNot">
              <p>Fols. <locus from="1ra" to="1vb">1r-1v</locus>: The are 
                sentence initials throughout the text of the fragment. The sentence 
                initials are executed in at time very delicate penwork.</p>
            </decoNote>
            <decoNote type="paratext">
              <p>Fol. <locus from="1vb" to="1vb">1vb:7-1vb:7</locus>: The  
                only preserved rubric is written in bright red ink and followed by  
                a line filler in light blue.</p>
            </decoNote>
          </decoDesc>
          <additions>
            <p>There are a few later additions on fol. <locus from="1v" to="1v">
              1v</locus>. In the top and bottom margin, a later hand added the monogram 
              <q>DGS</q>, underneath which the year <q>1636</q> can be made out.
              There is further some illegible writing in the outer margin as well 
              as pen trials in the lower margin.</p>
          </additions>		                  
          <bindingDesc>
            <binding contemporary="false"><p>The fragment is bound in a later 
              half binding with brown leather on the spine and the corners and black
              and green marbled paper on the boards.</p></binding>   
          </bindingDesc>
        </physDesc>
        <history>
          <origin>
            <p>The fragment was written in <origPlace>Norway</origPlace>
              <origDate notBefore="1250" notAfter="1280">c. 1260-1270</origDate>.</p>
          </origin>
          </history>
      </msDesc>
    </sourceDesc>
  </fileDesc>
  <encodingDesc>       
    <projectDesc>
      <p>This encoding follows the standard set out in <title>
        The Menota Handbook</title> (version 3.0), at <ref
         target="http://www.menota.org/handbook">
         http://www.menota.org/handbook</ref> as of 
         <date>2019-05-10</date>.</p>
       <p>The encoded text has numbered page beginnings, column beginnings 
         and line beginnings according to the manuscript.</p>
    </projectDesc>
    <editorialDecl>
      <correction status="high">
      <p>This text has been transcribed directly from photographic colour
        facsimiles of the manuscript.</p>
      </correction>
      <normalization me:level="facs dipl norm">
        <p>This text has been encoded on all three focal levels: facsimile, 
          diplomatic and normalised.</p>
      </normalization>
      <interpretation me:lemmatized="none" me:morphAnalyzed="none">
        <p>This text has not yet been annotated.</p>
      </interpretation>
    </editorialDecl>
  </encodingDesc>
  <profileDesc>
    <langUsage>
      <language ident="onw">Old Norwegian</language>
    </langUsage>
  </profileDesc>
  <revisionDesc>
    <change>
      <date>2019-05-12</date>
      <name>
        <persName>Odd Einar Haugen</persName>
        <orgName type="affiliation">University of Bergen</orgName>
      </name>: Made some minor changes to the header so that it could be 
        published as an example header in v. 3.0 of the handbook.
    </change>
    <change>
      <date>2018-01-22</date>
      <name>
        <persName>Nina Stensaker</persName>
        <orgName type="affiliation">University of Bergen</orgName>
      </name>: Finished the encoding on all three focal levels.
    </change>
    <change>
      <date>2017-08-09</date>
      <name>
        <persName>Beeke Stegmann</persName>
        <orgName type="affiliation">University of Copenhagen</orgName>
      </name>: Added more codicological detail about the manuscript in the header.
    </change>   
  </revisionDesc>
</teiHeader>

The body follows immediately after the header. This is where the actual transcription is located. Note that <div> elements are used to organise the various parts of the manuscript, referring to the divisons set out in the <msContents> element of the header.


<text xml:lang="onw">
  <body>
    <div>
      <p>The text goes here....</p>
    </div>
  </body>
</text>

E.5 Sample XML headers for download

We offer the three headers in this chapter for download:

Please note that some browsers may try and interpret and open this sample file. In order to download the file to your disk, use alt-click (Mac) or right-click (Windows) on your browser, unless your browser has other preferences.