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Chapter 9. Scribal and editorial intervention

9.1 Introduction
9.2 Scribal intervention
9.3 Editorial intervention

Version 3.0 beta

This is a preliminary version which can be changed or updated at any time.
The revision has been done by Odd Einar Haugen.

 

9.1 Introduction

This chapter deals with the encoding of additions, deletions and corrections made in the manuscript by the scribe or later users, or similar changes made in the transcription, e.g. by the transcriber or encoder of the manuscript text. In ch. 9.2 additions, deletions, transpositions and substitutions made by the scribe or later users of the manuscript are treated. Ch. 9.3 treats additions, deletions and corrections made by the transcriber of the manuscript text that have been made e.g. from other text witnesses or earlier editions of the text.


9.2 Scribal intervention

In the manuscript text and in the margins of the manuscript, we often encounter different kinds of corrections that we want to encode. These changes can be divided into different groups depending on the nature of the change and its relevance for the reading of the manuscript text or our knowledge about the manuscript. The main division is between additions or substitutions to the manuscript text, within the text or in the margins, and deletions made in the manuscript text. The former should be marked with the <add> element while the latter should be marked with the <del> element.

9.2.1 Additions by the scribe

This section deals with additions made by a scribal hand only. It is a common mistake to use elements designed for this purpose to mark up additions made by an editor; such features are covered below in ch. 9.3.

9.2.1.1 Encoding of scribal additions

The following elements are recommended for describing additions made by the author of the text, a compiler, scribe, annotator or corrector in the manuscript text. The TEI P5 Guidelines recommend the use of the <add> element to describe additions in the manuscript (ch. 11.3). In the following the use of <add> in relation to our recommended encoding of the individual word within the element <w> and on the three different levels <me:facs>, <me:dipl> and <me:norm> is treated.

Elements Contents
<add> Contains letters, words or phrases inserted in the manuscript text or in the margins of the manuscript by an author, scribe, annotator or corrector. Attributes include:
   @hand Signifies the agent which made the addition. The value is an XML IDREF, referring to a <handNote> element included in the header under <handDesc>. See the Menota header in Appendix E.
   @resp Signifies the transcriber or editor responsible for identifying the hand. The value is an XML IDREF, referring to an agent described in the header (cf. also ch. 10).
   @place Indicates where the addition is made. Suggested values include:
    'inline' The addition is made in a space originally left empty by the scribe.
    'supralinear' The addition is made above the line.
    'infralinear' The addition is made below the line.
    'margin-left' The addition is made in the left margin.
    'margin-right' The addition is made in the right margin.
    'margin-top' The addition is made in the top margin.
    'margin-bot' The addition is made in the bottom margin.
    'nextPage' The addition is made on the next page.
    'previousPage' The addition is made on the previous page.

Additions which can be ascribed to the author of a text are rare in medieval Nordic manuscripts. The additions being described with the above-mentioned attribute @hand will therefore primarily be ascribed to the values 'scribe' , 'compiler' , 'annotator' or 'corrector' . Scribal additions are probably the most common changes to be recorded in the transcription and encoding of a manuscript text. The list of hands in the header (cf. ch. 10) should identify the individual hand, either as anonymous or, if possible, by name. The main hand in a manuscript will normally be marked as 'mainscribe' .

If the addition consists of a series of complete words, the <add> tag should be surrounding the word(s). The following example contains a marginal addition:

Fig. 9.1. AM 748 I b 4to, fol. 18r, ll. 5-7

Here (AM 748 I b 4to, fol. 18r, ll. 5-7) the scribe (identified as 'mainscribe' in the header) has inserted the word 'sigavtr' in the left margin (now partially cut off by the binding) with a mark after 'skollvalldr'. It should be encoded as follows. Because the addition is a whole word, the tag should enclose the word (Note that for the sake of clarity we have limited the use of encoding to the relevant sequence and simplified the orthography):

<!-- after skollvalldr -->
<add place="margin-left" hand="mainscribe">
  <w>
    <choice>
      <me:facs>sig&avlig;tr</me:facs>
      <me:dipl>sig&avlig;tr</me:dipl>
    </choice>
  </w>
</add>

Note that to ensure correct rendering of the addition, no space is included between the <add> and <w> elements.

In cases where the addition forms part of a word, the markup should normally be restricted to the facsimile level. In any case, the addition need not be marked up as part of the normalised text. Cf. the following:

Fig. 9.2. AM 748 I b 4to, fol. 1r, l. 15

annat af
<w>
  <me:facs><add hand="scribe" place="supralinear">v</add>
     ręriligv<am>&bar;</am></me:facs>
  <me:dipl>vręriligv<ex>m</ex></me:dipl>
  <me:norm>uhræriligum</me:norm>
</w>
annat 

The location of the addition in the above markup is indicated by the attribute @place; in this case, the addition is made above the line of the manuscript text and therefore uses the value 'supralinear' .

The diplomatic and normalised text will normally include the addition if made by a scribal hand. Additions made by later hands will normally be omitted from the diplomatic and normalised text without markup.

Additions are sometimes made by an annotator, i.e. comments to the text. This kind of additions could be encoded as the marginal note “vantar ekkert F. J.” by Finnur Jónsson in Codex Wormianus (AM 242 fol. p. 60):

<add  hand="FJ">
  <w><me:facs>vantar</me:facs></w>
  <w><me:facs>ekkert</me:facs></w>
  <w><me:facs>F&dot;</me:facs></w>
  <w><me:facs>J&dot;</me:facs></w>
</add> 

It is also possible to indicate with the attribute @place where on the manuscript page the annotation is made. Finnur Jónsson’s annotation is made in the bottom margin, and should be encoded as follows:

<add  hand="FJ" place="bottom">
  <w><me:facs>vantar</me:facs></w>
  <w><me:facs>ekkert</me:facs></w>
  <w><me:facs>F&dot;</me:facs></w>
  <w><me:facs>J&dot;</me:facs></w>
</add> 

Changes in scribal hands are not considered additions. For the markup of such phenomena, use the empty <handShift/> element. Note that this element is parallel to empty elements like <pb/>, <cb/> and <lb/> in that it only points to a break in the text (cf. the discussion in ch. 4.7 and ch. 4.10 above).

See ch. 9.5 below for examples of how to mark up additions which span linguistic (<w>, etc.) boundaries.

9.2.1.2 Display of scribal additions

To be written

9.2.2 Deletions by the scribe

This section deals with deletions made by a scribal hand only. Text suppressed by the editor is dealt with in ch. 9.3.2 below.

9.2.2.1 Encoding of scribal deletions

The TEI P5 Guidelines specify the use of the <del> element to describe additions in the manuscript (ch. 11.3). In the following the use of <del> in relation to our recommended encoding of the individual word within the element <w> and on the three different levels <me:facs>, <me:dipl> and <me:norm> is treated.

Elements Contents
<del> Contains a letter, word or passage deleted, marked as deleted, or otherwise indicated as superfluous or spurious in the manuscript text by an author, scribe, annotator or corrector. Attributes include:
   @hand Signifies the agent which made the deletion. The value is an XML IDREF, referring to a <handNote> element included in the header under <handDesc>.
   @resp Signifies the editor or transcriber responsible for identifying the hand of the restoration. The value is an XML IDREF, referring to an agent described in the header (cf. ch. 10). This information can also be given in the header.
   @rend Display rendering information in TEI. This attribute is used here speficially to classify the deletion as displayed, using any convenient typology. Sample values include:
    'overstrike' The text has been struck through.
    'erasure' The text has been erased.
    'bracketed' Deletion indicated by brackets in the text or margin.
    'subpunction' Deletion indicated by dots beneath the letters deleted.

Deletions that can be ascribed to the author of a manuscript text are rare in medieval Nordic manuscripts. The deletions being described with the above mentioned attribute @hand will therefore primarily be ascribed to 'scribe' or 'corrector' .

Deletions should normally only be marked up at the 'facs' level. The text should be removed without indication at the other textual levels.

The example in ch. 9.2.1 (Figure 9.1) contains the word 'skolldvalldr' in which the first 'd' is marked with a dot below signifying deletion. It should be marked up as follows:

<w>
  <choice>
    <me:facs>ſkoll<del hand="mainscribe" rend="subpunction">d</del>
      valld&rrot;</me:facs>
    <me:dipl>ſkollvalld&rrot;</me:dipl>
  </choice>
</w>

Deletions of one or more words made by the scribe(s) or corrector(s) of a manuscript are encoded as in the passage from the Third Grammatical Treatise below. Note that we for clarity limit the use of encoding to the relevant manuscript line, and that only the <me:facs> and <me:dipl> levels are shown, and a few of the words have been suppressed.

Fig. 9.3. AM 242 fol., p. 94, ll. 11-13

<lb n="94:12"/>
<w>
  <choice>
    <me:facs>liflau<lb/>sum</me:facs>
    <me:dipl>liflausum</me:dipl>
  </choice>
</w>
<w>
  <choice>
    <me:facs>lvtv<am>&bar;</am>.</me:facs>
    <me:dipl>lvtv<ex>m</ex>.</me:dipl>
  </choice>
</w>

<del hand="mainscribe" rend="overstrike">
<w>
  <choice>
    <me:facs>v<am>&er;</am>rðr</me:facs>
    <me:dipl>v<ex>er</ex>ðr</me:dipl>
  </choice>
</w>
<w>
  <choice>
    <me:facs>an<am>&bar;</am>at</me:facs>
    <me:dipl>an<ex>n</ex>at</me:dipl>
  </choice>
</w>
<!-- skipping: 'af liflausum lutum. enn annat af lifligum lutum' ... -->
<w>
  <choice>
    <me:facs>lvtv<am>&bar;</am>.</me:facs>
    <me:dipl>lvtv<ex>m</ex>.</me:dipl>
  </choice>
</w>
</del>

<w>
  <choice>
    <me:facs>Hlioð</me:facs>
    <me:dipl>Hlioð</me:dipl>
  </choice>
</w>
<w>
  <choice>
    <me:facs>þ<am>&bar;</am></me:facs>
    <me:dipl>þ<ex>at</ex></me:dipl>
  </choice>
</w>
<w>
  <choice>
    <me:facs>hæyriz</me:facs>
    <me:dipl>hæyriz</me:dipl>
  </choice>
</w>

In the TEI P5 Guidelines cited above there are a number of possible types of deletion described with the attribute @type. These could be applied to deletions made both by scribe(s) and corrector(s). If a deletion is made e.g. by 'overstriking' the deleted text it could be encoded as (here only presented on the <me:facs> level):

en tuenner flokkar þeirar þioðar er<lb n="3r:15"/>
<del hand="mainscribe" rend="overstrike">
  <w>
    <me:facs>liguri</me:facs>
  </w>
  <w>
    <me:facs>hæita</me:facs>
  </w>
  <w>
    <me:facs>er</me:facs>
  </w>
</del>
traceum hæiter. 

The text that is marked as deleted must be at least partly legible in the manuscript so that it can be read by the transcriber. If the deleted text is not legible the deletion should be marked up with the <gap/> element, described below (9.3.1). The <gap/> element could be enclosed in the <del> element to indicate that the gap is in some way intentional. Parts of the deleted text that are legible could be indicated by the <unclear> element in combination with the <gap/> element as described below (ch. 9.3.2).

As for the markup of additions using <add>, if the deletion is of part of a word, it should normally only be marked up at the <me:facs> level. If the deletion is by a scribal hand, the deleted text will be omitted from the <me:dipl> and <me:norm> levels without markup.

In some cases, the deletion will conflict with word boundaries. ch. 9.5 below describes how to mark up such deletions.

9.2.2.2 Display of deletions by the scribe

We recommend that deleted text is displayed by a special pair of signs, looking like a vertical bar with a quill to the right for the beginning of the deletion and a quill to the left for the end.

Element Display
<del> Vertical bar + quill, U+005B and U+005D respectively, e.g.
þeirar þioðar er |-liguri hæita er-| traceum hæiter

If the reason for the deletion is a dittography, as exemplified here, some printed editions will use the signs U+2E21 and U+2E20, e.g. mæla -|mæla|-. Since these are identical to the signs recommended for deletions by the scribe, only in the reverse order, we do not recommend this usage. If it is a case of dittography, this will be evident from the text, so the default signs of curly brackets may be used also here.

As shown in the previous section, scribes had various ways of making deletions, particulalry overstrike, erasure and subpunction. If these have been indicated by the @rend attributed it is tempting to render them as such in the display. However, we recommend using a single pair of signs for deletions, and leave it to the photographic facsimile to show exactly how the deletion has been done.

9.2.3 Transpositions by the scribe

The sequence of words in a manuscript was sometimes transposed by the scribe or by a later hand, using various types of transposition signs. In the encoding, we would like to be able to include both the original order and the transposed order.

Fig. 9.3 a. AM 619 4to, fol. 47r, ll. 8–10

In Fig. 9.3 a, there are two transposition signs, one above each of the two words “vaner” and “váro” (simplified spelling) in the middle line indicating that the sequence should rather be “váro vaner”. There are different types of transposition signs; this one looks like three dots in a downwards-pointing triangle.

9.2.3.1 Encoding of scribal transpositions

Elements Contents
<orig> Contains the reading in the manuscript. Attributes include:
   @rend The correction markers in the manuscript. Sample value might be 'transposition-signs'.
<reg> Contains the reading corrected by the transcriber. Attributes include:
   @type The type of regularisation. We recommend the value 'transposition'.
   @resp The one who is responsible for the regularisation. Sample values include 'scribe', 'mainscribe' and 'laterscribe'.

In a single-level encoding, we recommend that the original reading is given within the <orig> element with a @rend attribute specifying the type of transposition signs in the manuscript. The transposed reading is encoded in an ensuing <reg> element, and both elements are contained in a <choice> element. The <reg> element should have a @type attribute with the value 'transposition' , and preferably a @resp attribute with a suitable value, e.g. 'mainscribe' or 'laterscribe' , or, if a distinction is difficult to draw, 'scribe' :

   <choice>
      <orig rend="transposition-signs">
         <w>vaner</w>
         <w>varo</w>
      </orig>
      <reg type="transposition" resp="mainscribe">
         <w>varo</w>
         <w>vaner</w>
      </reg>
   </choice>
  

In a multi-level encoding, one or more levels will be added within the <orig> as well as within the <reg> element:

   <choice>
      <orig rend="transposition-signs">
        <w>
          <choice>
             <me:facs>&vins;aner</me:facs>
             <me:dipl>vaner</me:dipl>
             <me:norm>vanir</me:norm>
          </choice>
        </w>
        <w>
          <choice>
             <me:facs>&vins;&aoligacute;&rrot;o</me:facs>
             <me:dipl>v&aolig;&combacute;ro</me:dipl>
             <me:norm>váru</me:norm>
          </choice>
        </w>             
      </orig>
      <reg type="transposition" resp="mainscribe">
        <w>
          <choice>
             <me:facs>&vins;&aolig;&combacute;&rrot;o</me:facs>
             <me:dipl>v&aolig;&combacute;ro</me:dipl>
             <me:norm>váru</me:norm>
          </choice>
        </w>
        <w>
          <choice>
             <me:facs>&vins;aner</me:facs>
             <me:dipl>vaner</me:dipl>
             <me:norm>vanir</me:norm>
          </choice>
        </w>             
      </reg>
   </choice>
  

If the text is annotated, we recommend that only the words in the <orig> element is annotated, so as to avoid duplication of the annotation. This is a similar case to that of any text being added by the transcriber in the <supplied> element. Supplied text should also be exempted from annotation.

9.2.3.2 Display of scribal transpositions

In a multi-level transcription, the <orig> reading should be displayed on the facsimile level and the <reg> reading on the diplomatic and normalised levels. In a single-level transcripiton, priority should be given to the <reg> reading, since this is the one intended by the scribe. The <orig> reading must be moved down to a note.

Elements and attributes Display in a single-level transcription Display in a multi-level transcription
<orig> Displayed in a note to the whole <orig> sequence. Displayed in the running text on the <me:facs> level.
<reg> Displayed in the running text. Displayed in the running text on the <me:dipl> and <me:norm> levels.

9.2.4 Substitutions by the scribe

This section describes the markup of text substituted by a scribe, that is, where a scribe deletes text and replaces it with some other text. In medieval manuscripts a rather common phenomenon is the combination of deleted text and added text. It is not always possible, however, to ascertain the relation between the two. If someone has deleted the originally written text inline this does not automatically mean that a corresponding addition above the line or in the margin is made by the same scribe. It can therefore not be stated as certain whether the correspondence is intentional or not. There is no specific element for this type of feature. We suggest that substitutions made in the manuscript should be marked primarily with the two core tags <del> and <add>. In cases where we can be relatively sure about the agent of the whole substitution this could be indicated with a combination of the <del> and the <add> elements as illustrated below.

Fig. 9.4. AM 748 I b 4to, fol. 13r, l. 25

Here, the seventh word 'barv' has been altered by the scribe, such that the original 'a' at the end of the word is marked as deleted by subpunctuation and a 'u' has been added as the replacement letter above the line. This word should be marked up as follows (facs and dipl levels only):

<w>
  <choice>
    <me:facs>bar<del hand="mainscribe" rend="subpunction">a</del>
      <add hand="mainscribe" place="supralinear">v</add></me:facs>
    <me:dipl>barv</me:dipl>
  </choice>
</w>

As for the <del> and <add> elements, markup within words should only be included at the facs level, and the dipl and norm levels should include the text which the scribe(s) appears to have intended, as in the example above.

The same type of markup can be used for substitutions which span structural boundaries. This type of markup is discussed in more detail in ch. 9.5.


9.3 Editorial intervention

When transcribing medieval material we often encounter words or longer sequences of text that we consider corrupt in one way or another. Sometimes it may also be obvious that text is missing in the manuscript we are transcribing or that the scribe has made a mistake. The transcriber of the manuscript text may in these instances wish to indicate the mistake or even correct the text, either directly from other versions of the same text or based on already existing editions of the text. Sometimes the transcriber or editor may also wish to make obvious grammatical corrections in the text without having any other text witness or precedence in an earlier edition. In the following the encoding of corrections made by the transcriber of the text or by an editor are treated. Note that we do not recommend the use of the attribute @hand for the changes made in transcription or encoding of the manuscript text. The attribute @resp should be used consistently for corrections or additions made in the transcription or encoding of the text to distinguish clearly between what is found in the manuscript text and what is made in the transcription and encoding of the text.

9.3.1 Additions by the editor

If text seems to be missing in the manuscript text, the editor may wish to supply it using the <supplied> element as described in the TEI P5 Guidelines (ch. 11.3.7. We recommend distinghuishing between two types of supplied text:

(1) Restoration of short passages, typically only one or a few characters or one or a few words. It may be an initial that the scribe did not fill in or a minor damage to the manuscript. Even if the restoration of the text may seem more or less certain, we recommend that the person who is responsible for the restoration is identified in a @resp attribute. We regard restoration as the default type of supplied text.

(2) Clarification of text through the addition of a short passage of text, typically one or a few words that give a more sensible reading from a grammatical or semantical point of view. In the context of a text archive, we regard this as a less common type of supplied text. For this reason, we recommend that it is encoded with a @type attribute having the 'clarification' value. In this way, it will be kept apart from the default type of supplied text, restoration. Also here, the person who is responsible for the clarification should identified in a @resp attribute.

9.3.1.1 Encoding of editorial additions

Elements Contents
<supplied> Signifies text supplied by the transcriber, encoder or editor either in place of text which cannot be read or to clarify a reading. Attributes include:
   @type States the type of supplemental text. The two major values are:
    'restoration' Obviously missing text due to e.g. an empty space or a hole in the manuscript.
    'clarification' Text assumed to be missing and added for the sake of clarity, either based on another source to the text or by the editor’s conjecture.
   @resp Indicates the individual responsible for the addition of letters, words or passages contained within the <supplied> tag. It can be given values like:
    'transcriber' The person responsible for the transcription of the manuscript text.
    'encoder' The person responsible for the encoding of the manuscript text.
    'editor' The editor of the text used for the addition or responsible for the addition in editing the manuscript text.
   @source States the source of the supplied text if this can be located.
   @reason Indicates why the text has had to be supplied
   @agent Where the presumed loss of text leading to the supplying of text arises from an identifiable cause, signifies the causative agent.

 

Fig. 9.4 b. Missing character. AM 677 4to, fol. 1v, ll. 1-3

Restoration is a common feature in the transcription of manuscripts. In Fig. 9.4 b, the initial is obviously missing, and there can hardly be any doubt that the intended character is the ‘S’ of the normalised word ‘this’. We regard restoration as the default case of <supplied>, so while a @type attribute with the 'restoration' value is perfectly fine, it is not essential (unlike the encoding of clarification discussed below). However, we do recommend a @resp attribute, since the one responsible for the supplied text, especially in somewhat longer passages, not always is the encoder, but perhaps the editor of another edition. Below is an encoding of the first three words in Fig. 9.4 b, in which the editor ALW (Andrea de Leeuw van Weenen) has been indentified as the one responsible for the supplied text:

<w>
  <choice>
    <me:facs><supplied resp="ALW"><c type="initial">S</c></supplied>a</me:facs>
    <me:dipl><supplied resp="ALW"><c type="initial">S</c></supplied>a</me:dipl>
    <me:norm><supplied resp="ALW"><c type="initial">S</c></supplied>á</me:norm>
  </choice>
</w>
<w>
  <choice>
    <me:facs>e&inodot;&nscap;</me:facs>
    <me:dipl>ei&nscap;</me:dipl>
    <me:norm>einn</me:norm>
  </choice>
</w>
<w>
  <choice>
    <me:facs><am>&mMedrun;</am></me:facs>
    <me:dipl><ex>madr</ex></me:dipl>
    <me:norm>maðr</me:norm>
  </choice>
</w>
</w>

Fig. 9.5. Minor damage to a manuscript. AM 757 a 4to, f. 2r, l. 22–25

If the transcriber or editor does not want to supply text on the <me:facs> level, but would like to reserve this for the <me:dipl> and <me:norm> levels, the empty <gap> element can be used, as illustrated by the encoding below of Fig. 9.5. In this case, the supplied text is actually attested in another source, the manuscript AM 748 I b 4to, so this has been specified in the @source attribute. TW (Tarrin Wills) is responsible for the addition and has been identified in the @resp attribute. Since there is a gap in the manuscript of approximately the same size as the supplied word, this is a type of restoration and no @type attribute is strictly necessary:

<w>
  <choice>
    <me:facs>m<lb n="25"/>alſg<am>&esup;</am>n<am>&rsup;</am>
      </me:facs>
    <me:dipl>m<lb n="25"/>alſg<ex>re</ex>n<ex>ar</ex></me:dipl>
    <me:dipl>m<lb n="25"/>álsgreinar</me:dipl>
  </choice>
</w>
<w>
  <choice>
    <me:facs><gap extent="2"/></me:facs>
    <me:dipl><supplied resp="TW" source="AM 748 I b 4to">þat</supplied></me:dipl>
    <me:norm><supplied resp="TW" source="AM 748 I b 4to">þat</supplied></me:norm>
  </choice></w>
<w>
  <choice>
    <me:facs>nafn</me:facs>
    <me:dipl>nafn</me:dipl>
    <me:dipl>nafn</me:dipl>
  </choice>
</w>

Fig. 9.5 a. Niðrstigningar saga. AM 645 4to, f. 55v, l. 5–7

Clarification is another type of supplied text and needs to be kept apart from restoration. Clarification is the addition of one or more characters or one or more words intended to make the text simpler or smoother according to criteria of morphology, syntax or semantics. One example is offered by Fig. 9.5, in which the middle line reads “Iesus Christus, sá er nú er krossfestr, hafi þangat sent”. A clarifying addition would be an object like þik, “Iesus Christus, sá er nú er krossfestr, hafi þik þangat sent”. This would be an encoding of the last four words:

<w>
  <choice>
    <me:facs>hafe</me:facs>
    <me:dipl>hafe</me:dipl>
    <me:dipl>hafi</me:dipl>
  </choice>
</w>
<w>
  <choice>
    <me:facs></me:facs>
    <me:dipl><supplied type="addition" resp="OEH">þik</supplied></me:dipl>
    <me:norm><supplied type="addition" resp="OEH">þik</supplied></me:norm>
  </choice></w>
<w>
  <choice>
    <me:facs>þa&nscap;gat</me:facs>
    <me:dipl>þa&nscap;gat</me:dipl>
    <me:dipl>þangat</me:dipl>
  </choice>
</w><w>
  <choice>
    <me:facs>&stall;e&nscap;t</me:facs>
    <me:dipl>se&nscap;t</me:dipl>
    <me:dipl>sent</me:dipl>
  </choice>
</w>

In general, clarification belongs on the <me:norm> level and will usually not be part of the encoding on the <me:facs> level. The <me:dipl> level is a border case. In the above example, the supplied word has been included here. In any case, the @resp attribute shoud always be part of the <supplied> element.

9.3.1.2 Display of editorial additions

We recommend that supplied text as a default is displayed in square brackets. If it is encoded with the @type attribute and the 'addition' value, we recommend using open angle brackets for the display.

Elements and attributes Display
<supplied> Square brackets, U+005B and U+005D respectively, e.g.
[S]á einn maðr
<supplied @type="addition"> Open angle brackets, U+27E8 and U+27E9 respectively, e.g.
hafi ⟨þik⟩ þangat sent

This means that the stylesheet should render any text in the <supplied> element with square brackets, unless it has the @type attribute with the 'addition' value. If it has the @type attribute with the 'restoration' value, it will by default be displayed by square brackets.

 

9.3.2 Deletions by the editor

If a piece of text obviously should be deleted, e.g. duplicated text in a dittography, the transcriber or editor might want to make a deletion. This is the converse action of supplying text, and should be distinguished from similar actions made by the scribe. While the elements <add> and <del> describe actions by the scribe himself or other scribes, the editorial additions and deletions should be singled out by separate elements. For additions, TEI recommends the element <supplied>, but there is no parallel to the <del> element. We suggest the element <me:suppressed>, since the noun suppression and the verb suppress are commonly used for editorial deletion.

9.3.2.1 Encoding of editorial deletions

Elements / attributes Contents
<me:suppressed> Contains text which the transcriber or editor believes should be suppressed.
   @type Indicates the type (or reason) for the suppression. It can be given values like:
    'dittography' One or more words should be suppressed because they have been written twice in a row
    'incoherence' One or more words should be suppressed to make the text more coherent
   @resp Indicates the individual responsible for the suppression of letters, words or passages contained within the <me:suppressed>. It can be given values like:
    'transcriber' The transcriber responsible for the suppression.
    'encoder' The encoder responsible for the suppression.

Note that suppressed text will not be deleted from the transcription, but will be contained by the <me:suppressed> element. The editor of the text may decide to dsiplay it with no comments, put it in brackets or leave it out. In a multi-level transcription, suppression will typically not be found on the <me:dipl> and <me:norm> levels, but not on the <me:facs> level.

Fig. 9.6. Supplied and deleted text. AM 233 a fol, fol. 28v, col. B, l. 39–40

In this example from Niðrstigningar saga, AM 233 a fol, the word “menn” has been supplied and thereafter the duplicated word “mæla” has been suppressed:

<w>
  <choice>
    <me:facs>þ<am>&bar;</am>t</me:facs>
    <me:dipl>þ<ex>uia</ex>t</me:dipl>
    <me:norm>þvíat</me:norm>
  </choice>
</w>
<w>
  <choice>
    <me:facs>þ<am>&bar;</am>r</me:facs>
    <me:dipl>þ<ex>ei</ex>r</me:dipl>
    <me:norm>þeir</me:norm>
  </choice>
</w>
<w>
  <choice>
    <me:facs>villdu</me:facs>
    <me:dipl>villdu</me:dipl>
    <me:norm>vildu</me:norm>
  </choice>
</w>
<w>
  <choice>
    <me:facs>ecki</me:facs>
    <me:dipl>ecki</me:dipl>
    <me:norm>ekki</me:norm>
  </choice>
</w>
<w>
  <choice>
    <me:facs>v<am>&dsup;</am></me:facs>
    <me:dipl>v<ex>id</ex></me:dipl>
    <me:norm>við</me:norm>
  </choice>
</w>
<w>
  <choice>
    <me:facs></me:facs>
    <me:dipl><supplied resp="OEH" source="AM 645 4to">menn</supplied></me:dipl>
    <me:norm><supplied resp="OEH" source="AM 645 4to">menn</supplied></me:norm>
  </choice>
</w>
<w>
  <choice>
    <me:facs>mæla</me:facs>
    <me:dipl>mæla</me:dipl>
    <me:norm>mǽla</me:norm>
  </choice>
</w>
<lb n="40"/>
<w>
  <choice>
    <me:facs>mæla</me:facs>
    <me:dipl><me:suppressed>mæla</me:suppressed></me:dipl>
    <me:norm><me:suppressed>mæla</me:suppressed></me:norm>
  </choice>
</w>

 

9.3.2.2 Display of editorial deletions

We recommend that deleted text as a default is displayed in curly brackets. In an archival display, such as in Menota, an alternative and rather intuitive way of displaying editorial deletion is to use overstrike combined with colouring of the deleted text.

Element Display in print Display in a digital archive
<me:suppressed> Curly brackets, U+005B and U+005D respectively, e.g.
við menn mæla {mæla}
Overstrike and blue colour, e.g.
við menn mæla m̶æ̶l̶a̶

If the reason for the deletion is a dittography, as exemplified here, some printed editions will use the signs U+2E21 and U+2E20. Since these are identical to the signs recommended for deletions by the scribe, only in the reverse order, we do not recommend this usage (cf. ch. 9.2.2.2 above). If it is a case of dittography, this will be evident from the text, so the default signs of curly brackets may be used also here.

 

9.3.3 Corrections by the editor

In the manuscript it is not always possible to say anything with certainty about the intention of changes in the text. When transcribing the text, however, corrections of obvious mistakes in the manuscript text could be marked with the following tag set recommended in the TEI P5 Guidelines (ch. 11.3). In the following the use of <sic> and <corr> in relation to our recommended encoding of the individual word within the element <w> and on the three different levels <me:facs>, <me:dipl> and <me:norm> is treated.

Elements / attributes Contents
<sic> Contains text reproduced although apparently incorrect or inaccurate.
<corr> Contains the correct form of a passage apparently erroneous in the manuscript text.
   @resp Indicates the individual responsible for the correction of letters, words or passages contained within the <corr> and <sic> elements. It can be given values like:
    'transcriber' The person responsible for the transcription of the manuscript text.
    'encoder' The person responsible for the encoding of the manuscript text.
    'editor' Signifies the editor responsible for suggesting the correction.
    'rend' Indicates how the element in question was rendered or presented in the source text.

In a first-level transcription it can be relevant just to mark the obviously corrupted instances in the manuscript text. This could be done with the <sic> element as in this instance from AM 242 fol:

Fig. 9.7. AM 242 fol, p. 98, ll. 3-4

Here the second numeral '.xij.' is written instead of '.ix.', obvious from the context and other manuscripts. The error should be signalled at the facs level and corrected at the dipl level:

<w>
  <choice>
    <me:facs>en<am>&bar;</am></me:facs>
    <me:dipl>en<ex>n</ex></me:dipl>
  </choice>
</w>
<num>
  <choice>
    <me:facs>.viij.</me:facs>
    <me:dipl>.viij.</me:dipl>
  </choice>
</num>
<w>
  <choice>
    <me:facs><am>.</am>e<am>.</am></me:facs>
    <me:dipl>e<ex>ða</ex></me:dipl>
  </choice></w>
<num>
  <choice>
    <me:facs><sic>.xij.</sic></me:facs>
    <me:dipl><corr>.ix.</corr></me:dipl>
  </choice>
</num>

With this markup it is possible to show the text on the computer screen or in a printed edition in accordance with the suggestions above (ch. 9.1):

en(n) .viij. e(ða) *.ix.

with the corrected form from the manuscript text underneath the edited text:

* .xij. 

It is also possible to include information about the person responsible for the correction with the attribute @resp and its values.

In this example of a multi-level transcription, the <sic> element lies on the facs level, while the <corr> element is introduced on the dipl level, and perhaps silently on the norm level. In a single-level transcription (cf. ch. 3.3), the <choice> element should be used to group the <sic> and <corr> elements. If, for example, a source has the reading

Please look left now!

in which “left” should be corrected to “right”, this would be the appropriate encoding:

Please look <choice><sic>left</sic><corr>right</corr></choice> now!

In a single-level transcription, the <choice> element thus groups <sic> and <corr> elements, while in a multi-level transcription it groups readings on different levels, i.e. the <me:facs>, <me:dipl> and <me:norm> elements. The <choice> element is simply a neutral mechanism to group alternative readings.


First published 28 August 2016. Last updated 14 November 2017. Webmaster.